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## Introduction

Currently, there are three known purposes for Line of Sight (LoS):

• Increasing success rate in the detection phase, which allows participation in aerial combat.
• A higher Fleet total LoS (FLoS, or known as Simple LoS) positively correlates with the trigger chance of artillery spotting for a ship's double/cut-in attack in day battle.
• Fleet total LoS is simply the summation of all LoS stats from your ships, including bonuses from the equipment.
• Effective LoS (eLoS), which allows the fleet to reach a specific node (usually a pre-boss or boss node) instead of being diverted to a dead end.
• Effective LoS has been employed in many Event Maps since Spring 2014 Event, Extra Operation Maps (including 1-6, 2-5, 3-5, 4-5), and some World 6 Maps.
• There are special formulas being used to calculate eLoS. As a general consensus, LoS bonuses from equipment (especially reconnaissance seaplanes) are more important than an individual ship's LoS stats.
• See sections below for the currently established formula on how to calculate eLoS.
• Reconnaissance Seaplane equipped on a light cruiser with no plane slots can contribute to LoS.[1] But if it is equipped onto ships and then shot down, it cannot contribute to LoS check performed afterward.

## Effective Line of Sight calculation method

### Formula 33

The current standard for LoS routing calculations.  It is described as follows[2]:

{\displaystyle \begin{align} \phi &= \sum_{s \in \text{Ships}} \sqrt{L_s} + C_{n} \sum_{l \in \text{Slots}}C_{l} ( S_{l} + S_l^{\star} ) - \lceil 0.4 H \rceil + 2(6-N) \\ S_l^{\star} &= C_l^{\star} \cdot \sqrt{\bigstar_l} \end{align} }

• ${\displaystyle L_{s}}$is the ship's base LoS
• ${\displaystyle C_n}$is the node factor, it represents the weighting of the formula that is known to vary across different maps and nodes. For example, in 6-2, the node factor of Cn = 3 means that equipment is 3 times as important compared to the original formula (as tested in 6-2-F/H). See following section for more details.
• ${\displaystyle C_{l}}$is the equipment multiplier:
• Carrier-Based Fighter: 0.6
• Carrier-Based Dive Bomber: 0.6
• Carrier-Based Torpedo Bomber: 0.8
• Carrier-Based Reconnaissance Aircraft: 1
• Reconnaissance Seaplane: 1.2
• Seaplane Bomber: 1.1
• ASW Patrol Aircraft: 0.6
• Searchlight (Small and Large): 0.6
• Fleet Command Facility: 0.6
• SCAMP: 0.6
• Skilled Lookouts: 0.6
• Sonar: 0.6
• Large Flying Boat: 0.6
• Seaplane Fighter: 0.6
• Midget Submarine: 0.6
• ${\displaystyle S_{l}}$is the displayed LoS value of the equipment
• ${\displaystyle S_l^{\star}}$is the equipment's improvement bonus to eLoS
• This is calculated by multiplying${\displaystyle C_l^{\star}}$, the improvement multiplier of that equipment, with the square root of the equipment's improvement level.
• The improvement multiplier of Small Radars is 1.25, Large Radars is 1.4, Reconnaissance Seaplanes is 1.2, and Searchlight is 0 (that is, it receives no eLoS bonus when improved)
• ${\displaystyle H}$is the HQ level. The ceil operation means that the value is rounded up every 2.5 HQ levels.
• ${\displaystyle N}$represents the amount of ships you have in your fleet.
• It is unknown whether this value increases mid-sortie if a ship disappears from your fleet (e.g. sinking).

#### Equipment LoS weighting modifier

• Also known as node factor
• In some maps, weighting of equipment would be higher than that others.
• It is represented as Cn in the formula.
• For all tested nodes, Cn for 2-5 is 1, for 3-5 and 6-1 are 4, for 6-2 and 6-3 are 3.
• That mean equipment LoS are 3 times more important in 6-2 and 6-3 compare to 2-5 and four time as important in 3-5 and 6-1.
• In other words, ship LoS are less effective in those maps with higher equipment weighting modifier.
• In 2-5, F33(Cn=1) have to be larger than 31 to have a chance to enter boss and 33 to guarantee boss entry.
• In 6-2, F33(Cn=3) have to be less than 43 to guarantee F>H and more than 40 to guarantee H>K